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John Snow war ein britischer Chirurg, Pionier bei der epidemiologischen Erforschung der Cholera und der Einführung der Narkose mit Äther und Chloroform. John Snow gilt als erster ärztlicher Spezialist für Anästhesie. John Snow (* März in York; † Juni in London) war ein britischer Chirurg, Pionier bei der epidemiologischen Erforschung der Cholera und der. John Snow ist der Name folgender Personen: John Snow (Mediziner) (–), englischer Chirurg und Narkosearzt; John W. Snow (* ). John Snow (* März in York; † Juni in London) war ein britischer Arzt und ein Pionier bei der Einführung der Narkose mit Äther und Chloroform. Dr. John Snow (* März in York, England; † Juni ) war ein englischer Arzt und ein.
In this gripping book, Sandra Hempel tells the story of John Snow, a reclusive doctor without money or social position, who—alone and unrecognized—had the. Jon Schnee (im Original: Jon Snow), geboren als Aegon Targaryen, ist ein Hauptcharakter ab der. Dr. John Snow (* März in York, England; † Juni ) war ein englischer Arzt und ein.
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John Snow VideoDOC - Jon Snow
John Snow - InhaltsverzeichnisWährend sie sich auf die Suche nach den verbliebenen Mitgliedern der Nachtwache machen, spricht Ygritte dieses Thema mehrmals an, um Jon in Verlegenheit zu bringen. D [ltr. Jaime darf daraufhin auf Winterfell bleiben und sie im Kampf gegen die Untoten unterstützen. Doch der Nachtkönig scheint verschwunden zu sein. Hard knocks 2019 geht sie auf just click for source Thron zu und berührt ihn. Allerdings hätte er in sie vertraut, in eine Fremde. Als Jon am nächsten Morgen Ygrittes Beine entfesselt, teilt sie ihm mit, dass sie ihm seine Jungfräulichkeit anmerke. Später versucht Sam Jon dazu zu überreden, Crasters schwangerer Tochter Goldy zu helfen, die Angst davor hat, einen Sohn zu bekommen, jedoch nicht erklären will, warum. Cersei ist offenbar überzeugt und willigt der Waffenruhe ein, allerdings nur unter der Bedingung, dass Jon sich keiner Seite verpflichtet und sich in den Norden here. See p. Orell misstraut Jon von Anfang an. Sponsored Content.
He published his ideas in an essay 'On the Mode of Communication of Cholera' in A few years later, Snow was able to prove his theory in dramatic circumstances.
In August , a cholera outbreak occurred in Soho. After careful investigation, including plotting cases of cholera on a map of the area, Snow was able to identify a water pump in Broad now Broadwick Street as the source of the disease.
He had the handle of the pump removed, and cases of cholera immediately began to diminish. However, Snow's 'germ' theory of disease was not widely accepted until the s.
Snow was also a pioneer in the field of anaesthetics. By testing the effects of controlled doses of ether and chloroform on animals and on humans, he made those drugs safer and more effective.
In April , he was responsible for giving chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of her son Leopold, and performed the same task in April when her daughter Beatrice was born.
Search term:. Read more. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets CSS enabled. The neighbourhood was one of the poorest in the city, and was frequently in danger of flooding because of its proximity to the River Ouse.
Growing up, Snow experienced unsanitary conditions and contamination in his hometown. Most of the streets were unsanitary and the river was contaminated by runoff water from market squares, cemeteries and sewage.
From a young age, Snow demonstrated an aptitude for mathematics. In , when he was 14, he obtained a medical apprenticeship with William Hardcastle in the area of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
In , during his time as a surgeon-apothecary apprentice, he encountered a cholera epidemic for the first time in Killingworth , a coal-mining village.
Eventually he adjusted to teetotalism and led a life characterized by abstinence, signing an abstinence pledge in The surgeons worked together conducting research on England's cholera epidemics, both continuing to do so for many years.
In , Snow began working at the Westminster Hospital. Snow was a founding member of the Epidemiological Society of London which was formed in May in response to the cholera outbreak of By , Snow and Greenhow's nephew, Dr.
Greenhow were some of a handful of esteemed medical men of the society who held discussions on this "dreadful scourge, the cholera ". In , Snow made an early and often overlooked  contribution to epidemiology in a pamphlet, On the adulteration of bread as a cause of rickets.
John Snow was one of the first physicians to study and calculate dosages for the use of ether and chloroform as surgical anaesthetics , allowing patients to undergo surgical and obstetric procedures without the distress and pain they would otherwise experience.
He designed the apparatus to safely administer ether to the patients and also designed a mask to administer chloroform.
Snow published an article on ether in entitled On the Inhalation of the Vapor of Ether. After finishing his medical studies in the University of London , he earned his MD in Snow set up his practice at 54 Frith Street in Soho as a surgeon and general practitioner.
John Snow contributed to a wide range of medical concerns including anaesthesiology. He was a member of the Westminster Medical Society , an organisation dedicated to clinical and scientific demonstrations.
Snow gained prestige and recognition all the while being able to experiment and pursue many of his scientific ideas. He was a speaker multiple times at the society's meetings and he also wrote and published articles.
He was especially interested in patients with respiratory diseases and tested his hypothesis through animal studies.
In , he wrote, On Asphyxiation, and on the Resuscitation of Still-Born Children , which is an article that discusses his discoveries on the physiology of neonatal respiration, oxygen consumption and the effects of body temperature change.
At the same time, he worked on various papers that reported his clinical experience with anaesthesia, noting reactions, procedures and experiments.
Though he thoroughly worked with ether as an anaesthetic, he never attempted to patent it; instead he continued to work and publish written works on his observations and research.
Within two years after ether was introduced, Snow was the most accomplished anaesthetist in Britain. London's principal surgeons suddenly wanted his assistance.
John Snow studied chloroform as much as he studied ether, which was introduced in by James Young Simpson , a Scottish obstetrician.
He realised that chloroform was much more potent and required more attention and precision when administering it.
Snow first realised this with Hannah Greener, a year-old patient who died on 28 January after a surgical procedure that required the cutting of her toenail.
She was administered chloroform by covering her face with a cloth dipped in the substance. However, she quickly lost pulse and died.
After investigating her death and a couple of deaths that followed, he realized that chloroform had to be administered carefully and published his findings in a letter to The Lancet.
Snow's work and findings were related to both anaesthesia and the practice of childbirth. His experience with obstetric patients was extensive and used different substances including ether, amylene and chloroform to treat his patients.
However, chloroform was the easiest drug to administer. He treated 77 obstetric patients with chloroform.
He would apply the chloroform at the second stage of labour and controlled the amount without completely putting the patients to sleep.
Once the patient was delivering the baby, they would only feel the first half of the contraction and be on the border of unconsciousness, but not fully there.
Regarding administration of the anaesthetic, Snow believed that it would be safer if another person that was not the surgeon applied it.
The use of chloroform as an anaesthetic for childbirth was seen as unethical by many physicians and even the Church of England.
However, on 7 April , Queen Victoria asked John Snow to administer chloroform during the delivery of her eighth child. He then repeated the procedure for the delivery of her daughter three years later.
Medical and religious acceptance of obstetrical anaesthesia came after in the 19th century. Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated that diseases such as cholera and bubonic plague were caused by pollution or a noxious form of "bad air".
The germ theory of disease had not yet been developed, so Snow did not understand the mechanism by which the disease was transmitted.
His observation of the evidence led him to discount the theory of foul air. He first published his theory in an essay, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera ,  followed by a more detailed treatise in incorporating the results of his investigation of the role of the water supply in the Soho epidemic of By talking to local residents with the help of Reverend Henry Whitehead , he identified the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street now Broadwick Street.
Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a water sample from the Broad Street pump did not conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle force rod.
This action has been commonly credited as ending the outbreak, but Snow observed that the epidemic may have already been in rapid decline:.
There is no doubt that the mortality was much diminished, as I said before, by the flight of the population, which commenced soon after the outbreak; but the attacks had so far diminished before the use of the water was stopped, that it is impossible to decide whether the well still contained the cholera poison in an active state, or whether, from some cause, the water had become free from it.
Snow later used a dot map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. He also used statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases.
He showed that homes supplied by the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company , which was taking water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames , had a cholera rate fourteen times that of those supplied by Lambeth Waterworks Company , which obtained water from the upriver, cleaner Seething Wells.
It is regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology. On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump.
There were only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred the water to that of the pumps which were nearer.
In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.
I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [7 September], and represented the above circumstances to them.
In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day. Researchers later discovered that this public well had been dug only 3 feet 0.
The cloth nappy of a baby, who had contracted cholera from another source, had been washed into this cesspit.
Its opening was originally under a nearby house, which had been rebuilt farther away after a fire.
The city had widened the street and the cesspit was lost. It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes.
Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil.
Thomas Shapter had conducted similar studies and used a point-based map for the study of cholera in Exeter , seven years before John Snow, although this did not identify the water supply problem that was later held responsible.
After the cholera epidemic had subsided, government officials replaced the Broad Street pump handle.
They had responded only to the urgent threat posed to the population, and afterward they rejected Snow's theory. To accept his proposal would have meant indirectly accepting the fecal-oral route of disease transmission, which was too unpleasant for most of the public to contemplate.
It wasn't until that William Farr , one of Snow's chief opponents, realised the validity of his diagnosis when investigating another outbreak of cholera at Bromley by Bow and issued immediate orders that unboiled water was not to be drunk.
Farr denied Snow's explanation of how exactly the contaminated water spread cholera, although he did accept that water had a role in the spread of the illness.
In fact, some of the statistical data that Farr collected helped promote John Snow's views. Public health officials recognise the political struggles in which reformers have often become entangled.
Snow became a vegetarian at the age of 17 and was a teetotaller. On this diet he excelled at swimming. In the mids, his health deteriorated and he suffered a renal disorder which he attributed to his vegan diet so he took up meat-eating and drinking wine.
He continued drinking pure water via boiling throughout his adult life. He never married. In , Snow became a member of the temperance movement.